After disclosing the vulnerability, Intel issued guidelines that recommend software developers write code in such a way that it is not vulnerable to side-channel attacks.

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In 2018, researchers found a hardware failure affecting processors and devices around the world, including CPU architectures from Intel and AMD.

The bug called Specter was built into modern computer processors that get their speed through speculative execution. This technique helps the processor predict instructions that it may be able to execute and prepares them by following the predicted path to retrieve the instructions from memory.

The attack caused the processor to execute instructions the wrong way. By the time the processor recovered and did its job as directed, hackers could access sensitive data.

After Specter was revealed, computer scientists worked on patches and defenses, believing they …

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